Scaffolding Level 2 Course In Azad kashmir

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Scaffolding Level 2 Course In Azad kashmir  

Scaffolding Level 2 Course In Azad kashmir  This article is about the temporary framework. For other uses of scaffold and scaffolding, see Scaffold (disambiguation).

Bamboo scaffolding used for the construction of the Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong.

Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging,[1] is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man-made structures. Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to.[2] Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects.

There are five main types of scaffolding used worldwide today. These are Tube and Coupler (fitting) components, prefabricated modular system scaffold components, H-frame / facade modular system scaffolds, timber scaffolds and bamboo scaffolds (particularly in China). Each type is made from several components which often include:

A base jack or plate which is a load-bearing base for the scaffold.

The standard, the upright component with connector joins.

The ledger, a horizontal brace.

The transom, a horizontal cross-section load-bearing component which holds the batten, board, or decking unit.

Brace diagonal and/or cross section bracing component.

Batten or board decking component used to make the working platform.

Coupler, a fitting used to join components together.

Scaffold tie, used to tie in the scaffold to structures.

Brackets, used to extend the width of working platforms.

Specialized components used to aid in their use as a temporary structure often include heavy duty load bearing transoms, ladders or stairway units for the ingress and egress of the scaffold, beams ladder/unit types used to span obstacles and rubbish chutes used to remove unwanted materials from the scaffold or construction project.The purpose of a working scaffold is to provide a safe working platform and access suitable for work crews to carry out their work. The European Standard sets out performance requirements for working scaffolds. These are substantially independent of the materials of which the scaffold is made. The standard is intended to be used as the basis for enquiry and design The key elements of the scaffolding are the standard, ledger and transoms. The standards, also called uprights, are the vertical tubes that transfer the entire weight of the structure to the ground where they rest on a square base plate to spread the load. The base plate has a shank in its centre to hold the tube and is sometimes pinned to a sole board. Ledgers are horizontal tubes which connect between the standards. Transoms rest upon the ledgers at right angles. Main transoms are placed next to the standards, they hold the standards in place and provide support for boards; intermediate transoms are those placed between the main transoms to provide extra support for boards. In Canada this style is referred to as "English". "American" has the transoms attached to the standards and is used less but has certain advantages in some situations. Reference works – compendiums of information, usually of a specific type, compiled in a book for ease of reference. That is, the information is intended to be quickly found when needed.

Culture – encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of the individuals in these groups.

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Scaffolding Level 2 Course In Azad kashmir